Amazon Linux includes a program called yum which is used to maintain (add, remove, update) software packages on your instance.
Below are instructions for updating your system and for installing development tools that include the gcc compiler.
If you want to explore what else yum can do, below are links to the yum documentation.
Updating Your System
Login to your instance.
Change user to root.
$ sudo su
Check if there are updates that available.
$ yum check-update
Update the packages that have updates available.
$ yum update
Reboot the VM
$ shutdown -r now
Your ssh connection will be lost. If you want to continue working on your server, wait 2 minutes or so, and then log back into your instance.
Installing Dev Tools
Install the Java compiler and development libraries.
$ yum install java-devel
Install all of the packages in the “Development Tools” group. This includes various compilers.
$ yum groupinstall "Development Tools"